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BNC has curated a vast collection of technical and industry white papers covering;

  • Blockchain applications & use cases
  • Cryptography
  • Consensus mechanisms
  • Digital currencies
  • Distributed ledger technology (DLT)
  • and much more

This selection of research has been arranged in alphabetical order by organisation or application title. Feel free to explore and share these resources.


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These are publicly available documents from Blockchain applications, Cryptocurrencies and/or Universities/academic research and all copyrights go to the respective authors/organisations of each paper. If you would like to contribute to our research by suggesting a relevant paper, or to leave feedback, drop us a note on [email protected].  Alternatively, you can submit your research here.


Productive Asset Record System

PARBrian Kelly, George Samman, Michael Sofaer & Jacob Dienelt

An open investment recording system built with intelligent lending and hedge fund administration in mind. A first of its kind, a fully transparent administration and audit platform leveraging blockchain technology.

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Peer-to-Peer Crypto-Currency with Proof-of-Stake

Peercoin - Sunny King and Scott Nadal

A peer-to-peer crypto-currency design derived from Satoshi Nakamoto’s Bitcoin. Proof-of-stake replaces proof-of-work to provide most of the network security. Under this hybrid design proof-of-work mainly provides initial minting and is largely non-essential in the long run. Security level of the network is not dependent on energy consumption in the long term thus providing an energy- efficient and more cost-competitive peer-to-peer crypto-currency. 

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A Provably Fair Blockchain-Based Gaming Platform

Peerplays Jonathan Baha’i, Michael P. Maloney

Provably fair online gaming is badly needed. Enter Peerplays, a solution for provably fair blockchain-based gaming that allows users to design their own specialized tokens or chips, buy or sell gateway tokens for popular cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin or Ether and then wager these tokens in on-chain games.

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Repurposing Bitcoin Work for Data Preservation

PermacoinAndrew Miller, Ari Juels, Elaine Shi, Bryan Parno and Jonathan Katz

This paper proposes a modification to Bitcoin that repurposes its mining resources to achieve a more broadly useful goal: dis- tributed storage of archival data. We call our new scheme Permacoin. Unlike Bitcoin and its proposed alternatives, Permacoin requires clients to invest not just computational resources, but also storage.

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The Pink Entanglement Engine - A Coin Independent Transaction Anonymizer Daemon


The introduction of the first iteration of the pink entanglement engine as a solution for anonymous transactions between users of bitcoin based cryptocurrencies. Anonymity is essential to such coins, and there has been a long history and a number of attempts to implement greater levels of anonymity into bitcoin and its derivative 'altcoins'. The pink entanglement engine provides a new and different approach that anonymizes transactions in such a way that the link between sender and receiver is completely and permanently untraceable and unrecoverable.

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Plutus White Paper


The Plutus Mobile Application enables a user to make contactless Bitcoin payments at any merchant with a Near Field Communication (NFC) enabled checkout terminal. This is the most practical way to pay with Bitcoin, because the payment process consists only of holding a mobile device above the merchants NFC reader. As a result, Bitcoin payments are effeffectively accepted by proxy at over 32 million brick and mortar merchants around the world. The primary purpose of Plutus is to provide incentive for, and enable, the practical day to-day usage of Bitcoin; ultimately accelerating mass-consumer adoption.

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Positron Anonymous Transaction Technology


Positron proposes a solution to make tracing payments nearly impossible. The system will implement a series of “Masternodes” that clutter transactions in the blockchain, creating a unique “Ramchain” technology that allows the ”Masternodes” to get involved with transactions. This will not be a layer on top of the blockchain or a series of mixer nodes, but instead a flurry of inputs in a particular transaction that masks its true destination.

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Primecoin: Cryptocurrency with Prime Number Proof-of-Work


A new type of proof-of-work based on searching for prime numbers is introduced in peer-to-peer cryptocurrency designs. Three types of prime chains known as Cunningham chain of first kind, Cunningham chain of second kind and bi-twin chain are qualified as proof-of-work. Prime chain is linked to block hash to preserve the security property of Nakamoto’s Bitcoin, while a continuous difficulty evaluation scheme is designed to allow prime chain to act as adjustable-difficulty proof-of-work in a Bitcoin like cryptocurrency.

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Proof of ActivityExtending Bitcoin’s Proof of Work via Proof of Stake

Iddo Bentov, Charles Lee, Alex Mizrahi and Meni Rosenfeld

A new protocol for a cryptocurrency, that builds upon the Bitcoin protocol by combining its Proof of Work component with a Proof of Stake type of system. The Proof of Activity (PoA) protocol offers good security against possibly practical future attacks on Bitcoin, and has a relatively low penalty in terms of network communication and storage space. The paper explores various attack scenarios and suggests remedies to potential vulnerabilities of the PoA protocol, as well as evaluate the performance of its core subroutine.

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How Tor­ based Cryptocurrencies Solve The Anonymity Problems of Bitcoin


The past few months have seen a plethora of coins which claim to solve the problems of Bitcoin’s pseudononymous transactions. Unfortunately, these efforts have failed miserably due to a lack of understanding of what the anonymity issues of Bitcoin truly are, as none of these alleged anonymous systems have addressed the fundamental problem of detaching the user from the transaction itself. Tor­based cryptocurrencies, such as Razor, solve this problem by creating an entire ecosystem which exists solely within a time­tested, secure, distributed, and anonymous network.

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Proof of Stake Velocity: Building the Social Currency of the Digital Age

Reddcoin - Larry Ren

Proof of Stake Velocity (PoSV) is proposed as an alternative to Proof of Work (PoW) and Proof of Stake (PoS) to secure the peer-to-peer network and confirm transactions of Reddcoin, a cryptocurrency created specifi- cally to facilitate social interactions in the digital age. 

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RibbitRewards Whitepaper

Loyyal - formally (Ribbit Rewards)

RibbitRewards (RBT) are reward credits that will be tracked using a Bitcoin-derived blockchain. This gives RibbitRewards transaction abilities which typically are not possible with other rewards systems. Users will be able to exchange RibbitRewards into goods and services, as well as virtual or fiat currencies, without the involvement of Ribbit.me Furthermore, the value of RBT should “float” depending on the purchasing behavior of its holders.

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The Ripple Protocol Consensus Algorithm

Ripple - David Schwartz, Noah Youngs, Arthur Britto

Presented in this paper is a novel consensus algorithm that circumvents this requirement by utilizing collectively-trusted subnetworks within the larger network. We show that the “trust” required of these subnetworks is in fact minimal and can be further reduced with principled choice of the member nodes.

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The Ripple Protocol - A Deep Dive For Finance Professionals


Ripple is a universal protocol founded in 2012 to power the cheapest and fastest payment system for value transfer. Ripple’s technology enables users to transfer funds (including fiat currencies, digital currencies and other forms of value) across national boundaries as seamlessly as sending an email.

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Ripple: A Primer


Ripple is an Internet protocol for making financial transactions. You can use Ripple to send money anywhere in the world, in any currenc, instantly and for free.

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Ripple Solution Guide


Ripple’s solution is built around a network that requires no central operator, resulting in instant transaction verification and settlement certainty. It offers a cryptographically secure end-to-end payment flow with transaction immutability and information redundancy. 

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Ripple Brochure


Ripple provides access to a global network of banks and market makers. Using Ripple as infrastructure technology, banks settle cross-currency transactions instantly and with complete visibility and certainty, resulting in the lowest total cost of settlement for every transaction.

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Rootstock - Bitcoin powered Smart Contracts, Revision: 9

RSK Labs - Sergio Demian Lerner

RSK is an evolution of QixCoin, a turing-complete cryptocurrency created back in 2013 by the same development team. RSK provides an improved payment experience with near instant confirmations. It achieves currently 300 tps and confirms most payments in less than 20 seconds. And yet, is still based on the same security guarantees Bitcoin has, supporting SHA-256D merged mining.

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Drivechains, Sidechains and Hybrid 2way peg Designs

RSK LabsSergio Demian Lerner

A 2way peg (2WP) protocol is a protocol that allows transfers of a cryptocurrency from a main blockchain to a second blockchain and viceversa requiring low thirdparty trust. This article compares the existing 2WP methods for a blockchain: a Federation, a Sidechain and Drivechain. We also investigate hybrid methods and try to evaluate them to choose which is best suited for the 2WP of the RSK platform on each stage of adoption.

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Centrally Banked Cryptocurrencies

RSCoinGeorge Danezis, Sarah Meiklejohn

RSCoin is a cryptocurrency framework in which central banks maintain complete control over the monetary supply, but rely on a distributed set of authorities, or mintettes, to prevent double-spending. While monetary policy is centralized, RSCoin still provides strong transparency and auditability guarantees. Demonstrated in this paper are both theoretically and experimentally, the benefits of a modest degree of centralization, such as the elimination of wasteful hashing and a scalable system for avoiding double- spending attacks.

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Safe Exchange: A Peer-to-Peer Decentralized Contract Market Platform

Safe ExchangeDaniel Dabek

The Safe Exchange is a platform on which any person can create a digital item and also issue a digital contract. The Safe Network allows a person to store any kind of information and communicate any kind of information with cryptographic integrity. Through a client application a user can define an item's attributes and then later offer that item in a contract to a marketplace where other people can discover, scrutinize, and even fulfill the terms of the contract autonomously without the necessity of a 'trusted third party' to intervene in transactions.

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SaffronCoin - White Paper


SaffronCoin is revolutionary crypto currency founded by developers in India for the sub-continent, the South Asia Region and theWorld. The currency launched in April 2014 with an unusually small 0.0007 % premine.

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SendChat- White Paper

Blocktrail - (formley SendChat)

SendChat has established grounds on the basis of becoming the main communication tool devised using the blockchain technology. The platform will infuse existing technologies ­ telegram ­ that not only deliver a platform which has been extensively developed with privacy and security in mind but also other digital currency platforms such as ­­ Bitcoin, Dogecoin etc. ­­ to produce a winning solution that can cater to both new and existing messaging users.

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ShadowCash: Zero­knowledge Anonymous Distributed E­Cash via Traceable Ring Signatures

ShadowCashRynomster and Tecnovert

Presented in this paper is an anonymous cryptographic transaction protocol which utilises: dual­key stealth addresses, traceable ring signatures and non-­interactive zero knowledge proofs. The paper shows how their scheme introduces a much higher level of privacy and anonymity to the network while still preserving the core principles of trustless decentralization, unforgeability and double­spend prevention. The authors also also present performance data of their scheme which includes proof sizes, signature generation times and verification times.

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Sia: Simple Decentralized Storage

SiacoinDavid Vorick and Luke Champine

The authors introduce Sia, a platform for decentralized storage. Sia enables the formation of storage contracts between peers. Contracts are agreements between a storage provider and their client, defining what data will be stored and at what price.

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SpreadCoin - Whitepaper


Controlling more than 50% of mining power allows to perform double-spending attacks with 100% chance of success but even with less than 50% control it is possible to perform attacks which have chances to succeed. The core idea of SpreadCoin is to prevent creation of pools and thus make mining more decentralized and the whole system more secure.

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A Note on Cryptocurrency Stabilisation: Seigniorage Shares


In this paper, the authors argue that next-generation cryptocurrencies should incorporate an elastic supply rule that adjust the quantity of coin supply proportionately to changes in coin market value. There are two difficult problems to solve in order to implement such a scheme. This note outlines a solution to one of those problems, and offers some suggestions on how the other problem might be solved.

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Stealthsend Whitepaper Brief


The author of this paper describes the essential theory and properties of stealthsend.

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Anonymous Secure Decentralized SMS


Stealthtext is a way to send stealthcoin privately and securely using SMS texting. stealthtext is invaluable in situations where you can not access a data plan. With stealthtext, you can send others stealthcoin directly from your wallet and receive confirmation by SMS.

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Steem - An incentivized, blockchain-based social media platform

Steem Daniel Larimer, Ned Scott, Valentine Zavgorodnev, Benjamin Johnson, James Calfee and Michael Vandeberg 

Steem is a blockchain database that supports community building and social interaction with cryptocurrency rewards. Steem combines concepts from social media with lessons learned from building cryptocurrencies and their communities. An important key to inspiring participation in any community, currency or free market economy is a fair accounting system that consistently reflects each person's contribution. Steem is the first cryptocurrency that attempts to accurately and transparently reward an unbounded number of individuals who make subjective contributions to its community.

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Stratis Whitepaper


Stratis is a powerful and flexible blockchain Development Platform designed for the needs of real-world financial services businesses and other organisations that want to develop, test and deploy applications on the blockchain. Stratis blockchain apps can be developed in pure C# and can also utilize the Microsoft .NET framework, while also taking advantage of the powerful Stratis APIs and framework.

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Navajo Anonymous Technology

Summercoin - Soopy

This documents an extensive number of questions that have been asked by the community members and potential questions that might help understand the technology involved.

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SuperCoin & SuperSend Whitepaper


SuperCoin is an innovative X11 PoW/PoS coin, with PoW and PoS superblocks, and with anonymous wallet features. The anonymous send is done through SuperSend technology. SuperSend is an anonymous send technology belonging to the Coinjoin catalogue. It is implemented natively for SuperCoin (and may be used by other coins in the future as well).

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SuperNET - Information for prospective volunteers


SuperNET is a movement of volunteer participants who will donate their time and money to support a radical new cryptocurrency initiative. SuperNET itself is not a cryptocurrency. Participation in SuperNET and distribution of any revenues it may generate in the future will be denoted by ownership of cryptoTokens given in exchange for donations.

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Synereo: The Decentralized and Distributed Social Network

Synereo Dor Konforty, Yuval Adam, Daniel Estrada and Lucius Gregory Meredith

Synereo is a next-gen decentralized and distributed social network designed for an attention economy. The presentation is given in two chapters. Chapter 1 presents the design philosophy. Chapter 2 defines a network model showing the mechanics of the network interactions, as well as the compensation model enabling users to promote content on the network and receive compensation for attention given to the network.

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TauchainOhad Asor

τ-chain (pronounced tau-chain) is a decentralized peer-to-peer network having three unified faces: Rules, Proofs, and Computer Programs, allowing a generalization of virtually any centralized or decentralized P2P network, together with many new abilities, presented in this note.

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Teambrella: A Peer­-to-­Peer Insurance System

Teambrella - Alex Paperno, Vlad Kravchuk and Eugene Porubaev

Most insurance services are currently both inefficient and nontransparent. This note proposes a way to solve these issues by implementing a system that provides peer to peer insurance. Peers have mutual control on most aspects of their insurance, such as risk evaluation and processing of payments. The mutual control is implemented via a voting mechanism that can be delegated to proxies. To ease the burden of payments between peers, Bitcoin is used as a mean of providing coverage and payment of reimbursements.

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Tendermint: Consensus without Mining

TendermintJae Kwon

Most insurance services are currently both inefficient and nontransparent. This note proposes a way to solve these issues by implementing a system that provides peer to peer insurance. Peers have mutual control on most aspects of their insurance, such as risk evaluation and processing of payments. The mutual control is implemented via a voting mechanism that can be delegated to proxies. To ease the burden of payments between peers, Bitcoin is used as a mean of providing coverage and payment of reimbursements.

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Tether: Fiat currencies on the Bitcoin blockchain


A digital token backed by fiat currency provides individuals and organizations with a robust and decentralized method of exchanging value while using a familiar accounting unit. In order to maintain accountability and to ensure stability in exchange price, the proposed method is to maintain a one ­to ­one reserve ratio between a cryptocurrency token, called tethers, and its associated real ­world asset, fiat currency. This method uses the Bitcoin blockchain, Proof of Reserves, and other audit methods to prove that issued tokens are fully backed and reserved at all times.

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The Bitcoin Backbone Protocol: Analysis and Applications

Juan A. Garay and Aggelos Kiayias

Bitcoin is the first and most popular decentralized cryptocurrency to date. In this work, the authors extract and analyze the core of the Bitcoin protocol, which they term the Bitcoin backbone, and prove two of its fundamental properties which they call common prefix and chain quality in the static setting where the number of players remains fixed.

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The General Theory of Decentralized Applications, DApps

David Johnston, Sam Onat Yilmaz, Jeremy Kandah, Nikos Bentenitis, Farzad Hashemi, Ron Gross, Shawn Wilkinson and Steven Mason

This paper describes why decentralized applications have the potential to be immensely successful, how the different types of decentralized applications can be classified, and introduces terminology that aims to be accurate and helpful to the community. Finally, this paper postulates that these decentralized applications will some day surpass the world’s largest software corporations in utility, user-base, and network valuation due to their superior incentivization structure, flexibility, transparency, resiliency, and distributed nature.

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The Value of App Coins

David A. Johnston, Joel Dietz and Ron Gross 

This white paper seeks to put forth the economic and technical reasons that the digital tokens known as “App Coins” can develop a value in the market and maintain their value over the long term, should their associated application gain adoption by users. App Coins can be implemented for solid technical or economic reasons. However projects should think carefully about their particular application and evaluate if there are compelling technical or economic justifications for the creation of an App Coin or if a for-profit business model may be better suited than a crowdsale model involving a pre-sale of the tokens that gives access to the services.

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Chainpoint - A scalable protocol for recording data in the blockchain and generating blockchain receipts

TierionWayne Vaughan, Shawn Wilkinson and Jason Bukowski

A standard for maximizing the scalability of recording data in the blockchain and generating blockchain receipts. Each receipt contains all the information needed to verify the data without relying on a trusted third party.

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Transactions as Proof-of-Stake

Daniel Larimer

The concept behind Proof-of-Stake is that a blockchain should be secured by those with a financial interest in the chain. This paper will introduce a new approach to Proof-of-Stake that utilizes coin-days- destroyed by every transaction as a substitute for the vast majority of the security currently provided by Proof-of-Work. Unlike prior Proof-of-Stake systems in which only some nodes contribute to the proof-of-stake calculation, presented in this paper is a new approach to Proof-of-Stake whereby all nodes generating transactions contribute to the security of the network. The author speculates that such a network would be immune to known attacks against Bitcoin or Peercoin. 

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